Friday, February 23, 2018

Ecobrick Eco-lution

Join the Ecobrick Eco-lution!

For every bottle of Lamp of Life Transdermal Magnesium you purchase, R5.00 (per 100ml), R10.00 (per 200ml) or R15.00 (per 500ml) goes to empowering the unemployed and taking plastic out of the environment. 

An Ecobrick is a 2L cooldrink bottle filled with chip and sweet packets, cling-film, polystyrene, photos, packets the supermarkets put your veggies and fruit into - any type of plastic that is not recyclable. 

These bricks can be used to build a variety of structures including raised beds for gardens, benches and tables, boundary walls and much more! Check out: http://www.ecobricks.org/build/

We are personally paying unemployed people to bring Ecobricks for storage until we have enough to start building things in our local communities or for Ecobrickexchange.org to collect to do the same. 

There are currently no collection points for Ecobricks in KZN (or anywhere in South Africa except Cape Town as per the ecobrickexchange.org website) so for now they will be stored in our garage. 

Please visit https://ecobrickexchange.org/views/home.php#about for more information in Ecobricks and start making your own at home!

Friday, February 2, 2018

MSM information

Lamp of Life now with MSM

Like magnesium, sulphur is essential to our well-being and is a natural pain reliever and detoxifying agent.

Methylsulfonylmethane is organic sulphur – it falls to earth in rain and is absorbed by plants.

·         Destroyed by the processing of foods, most people are already deficient
·         It is the third most abundant mineral in our bodies.
·         Highest concentrations are found in the muscles, skin, bone, nails and hair.
·         Necessary for the production of amino acids and anti-oxidants, thus assisting with the detoxification of the cells and protein production
·         Keeps flexible tissues in the muscles, blood vessels, skin and lungs elastic
·         Faster absorption of magnesium by increased cell permeability
·         Necessary for the production of collagen and keratin
·         Critical nutrient for anti-aging and longevity


For more information on the benefits of MSM: 

MSM Links and articles

The links to the articles are provided at the top of the article, some articles have been summarized:


Sulfur in human nutrition and applications in medicine.
·         Sulfur is the sixth most abundant macromineral in breast milk and the third most abundant mineral of total body weight.
·         The sulfur-containing amino acids (SAAs) are methionine, cysteine, cystine, homocysteine, homocystine, and taurine.
·         Dietary SAA analysis and protein supplementation may be indicated for vegan athletes, children, or patients with HIV, because of an increased risk for SAA deficiency in these groups.
·         Organic sulfur, as SAAs, can be used to increase synthesis of S-adenosylmethionine (SAMe), glutathione (GSH), taurine, and N-acetylcysteine (NAC).
·         MSM may be effective for the treatment of allergy, pain syndromes, athletic injuries, and bladder disorders.
·         Other sulfur compounds such as SAMe, dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO), taurine, , and reduced glutathione may also have clinical applications in the treatment of a number of conditions such as depression, fibromyalgia, arthritis, interstitial cystitis, athletic injuries, congestive heart failure, diabetes, cancer, and AIDS.
·         The low toxicological profiles of these sulfur compounds, combined with promising therapeutic effects, warrant continued human clinical trails.


*Sulfur is a naturally-occurring mineral, as a supplement, sulfur is available in two forms: dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and methylsulfonylmethane (MSM). About 15% of DMSO breaks down into MSM in the body. Both have been touted as treatments for pain.
*MSM is important in joint health and helps form the connective tissues including cartilage, tendons, and ligaments.
* It may also reduce pain by slowing the nerve impulses that transmit pain signals.
* Mud baths containing sulfur, often called balneotherapy, can help treat skin disorders and arthritis. Balneotherapy is one of the oldest forms of pain relief for people with arthritis. The term "balneo" comes from the Latin word for bath and means soaking in thermal or mineral waters.
* People also apply sulfur products to the skin to treat acne and other skin conditions.
 Skin disorders
Sulfur baths, and other methods for applying sulfur to the skin, may help treat:
·         Acne
·         Rosacea
·         Psoriasis
·         Eczema
·         Dandruff
·         Folliculitis, infected hair follicles
·         Warts
·         Pityriasis versicolor. A long-lasting skin disorder characterized by patches of skin that are a different color from the usual skin tone.
Arthritis
·         Balneotherapy. Well-designed studies, most conducted in Israel, suggest that balneotherapy can help treat several different kinds of arthritis, including osteoarthritis (OA), rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and psoriatic arthritis. People who took sulfur baths and other spa therapies saw improvements in their strength, had less morning stiffness, had better walking ability, and experienced less inflammation, swelling, and pain in their joints, particularly in the neck and back. Mud packs and Dead Sea salts dissolved in a regular bath tub also improved symptoms of arthritis, but not as effectively as soaking in the Dead Sea itself.
·         MSM. MSM is a popular supplement for treating the pain of arthritis, including both OA and RA. But there is not much scientific evidence that it works. One preliminary study suggested that 6,000 mg of MSM did improve pain and function without side effects in people with OA of the knee. Some preparations combine MSM with glucosamine to treat OA. One study suggests that this approach might help More research is needed.
Allergic rhinitis (hay fever)
One preliminary study found that taking 2,600 mg of MSM per day for 30 days reduced symptoms of seasonal allergies. More research is needed.
Precautions
Researchers believe MSM is safe, however, you should talk to your doctor before taking large doses of this or any other supplement. Studies show sulfur may make you more sensitive to the sun.
Possible Interactions
There are no reports to suggest that MSM interacts with any conventional medications.
Supporting Research
Barrager E, Veltmann JR, Schauss AG, Schiller RN. A multi-centered, open-label trial on the safety and efficacy of methylsulfonylmethane in the treatment of seasonal allergic rhinitis. J Altern Complement Med. 2002;8(2):167-73.
Brien S, Prescott P, Lewith G. Meta-analysis of the related nutritional supplements dimethyl sulfoxide and methylsulfonylmethane in the treatment of osteoarthritis of the knee. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2009 May 27. [Epub ahead of print].
D'Amato G, Liccardi G, D'Amato M. Environmental risk factors (outdoor air pollution and climatic changes) and increased trend of respiratory allergy. J Investig Allergol Clin Immunol. 2000;10(3):123-8.
Elkayam O, Ophir J, Brener S, Paran D, Wigler I, Efron D, Even-Paz Z, Politi Y, Yaron M. Immediate and delayed effects of treatment at the Dead Sea in patients with psoriatic arthritis. Rheumatol Int. 2000;19(3):77-82.
Kim LS, Axelrod LJ, Howard P, Buratovich N, Waters RF. Efficacy of methylsulfonylmethane (MSM) in osteoarthritis pain of the knee: a pilot clinical trial. Osteoarthritis Cartilage. 2006 Mar;14(3):286-94.
Moldwin RM, Evans RJ, Stanford EJ, Rosenberg MT. Rational approaches to the treatment of patients with interstitial cystitis. Urology. 2007 Apr;69(4 Suppl):73-81. Review.
Pain. MSM: does it work? Harv Health Lett. 2000;25(10):7.
Parcell S. Sulfur in human nutrition and applications in medicine. Altern Med Rev. 2002;7(1):22-44.
Ring J, Eberlein-Koenig B, Behrendt H. Environmental pollution and allergy. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2001;87(6 Suppl 3):2-6.
Simon LS, Grierson LM, Naseer Z, et al. Efficacy and safety of topical diclofenac containing dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) compared with those of topical placebo, DMSO vehicle and oral diclofenac for knee osteoarthritis. Pain. 2009;143:238-45.
Theoharides TC. Treatment approaches for painful bladder syndrome/interstitial cystitis. Drugs. 2007;67(2):215-35. Review.
Usha PR, Naidu MUR. Randomised, double-blind, parallel, placebo-controlled study of oral glucosamine, methylsulfonylmethane and their combinations. Clin Drug Invest. 2004;24:353-63.
Verhagen AP, de Vet HC, de BIE RA, Kessels AG, Boers M, Knipschild PG. Balneotherapy for rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis (Cochrane Review). In: The Cochrane Library. Issue 4, 2000. Oxford: Update Software.
von Mutius E. The environmental predictors of allergic disease. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2000;105(1 Pt 1):9-19.
Wolverton. Comprehensive Dermatologic Drug Therapy. 3rd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders. 2012.
Zhou J, Liu JH, Jin Y, Ouyang XL, Yang LG. Protective effects of DMSO on function of lyphilized human platelets. Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi. 2007;15(6):1284-8.


By Dr. Mercola
As MIT science researcher Stephanie Seneff wrote for the Weston A. Price Foundation noted:1
"Sulfur is known as a healing mineral, and a sulfur deficiency often leads to pain and inflammation associated with various muscle and skeletal disorders.
Sulfur plays a role in many biological processes, one of which is metabolism. It is present in insulin, the essential hormone that promotes the utilization of sugar derived from carbohydrates for fuel in muscle and fat cells."
Sulfur: The Third Most Abundant Mineral in Your Body
Sulfur is present in all living tissues. It's a component in two important amino acids: methionine, which is essential, meaning your body doesn't synthesize and must be obtained from an outside source, and cysteine, which needs sulfur at a steady rate and is synthesized by your body.
*Your skin, muscles and bones contain about half the sulfur in your body.
*Your hair and nails, made of the sturdy protein keratin, contain a large share of sulfur,
* Cartilage and connective tissues are a more flexible form, which changes and breaks down over time, leading to recognizable signs of aging.
* Wrinkles, sore muscles and joint pain, may be an indication of a sulfur deficiency.
What's so Special About Sulfur?
*Sulfur plays a critical role in detoxification, as it is part of one of the most important antioxidants that your body produces: glutathione. Without sulfur, glutathione is rendered ineffective. That's significant because glutathione is your body's built-in detoxifier.
* One study explained that sulfur and some of its compounds may protect against exposure to ultraviolet (UV) light, X-rays and radiation, and can be used for detoxification.2
* Scientists concede that a sulfur deficiency may be a base cause for Alzheimer's disease, which is growing exponentially every year. One article discussed the association between dementia and other prevalent problems and a shortage of sulfur in the body:
"Interestingly, sulfur is a very potent Aluminum Antagonist, which should satisfy those who maintain that aluminum is a significant factor with Alzheimer's disease.
Likewise, a majority of younger and older patients who were suffering from a 'foggy mind,' concentration problems, and/or poor memory, showed below-normal sulfur levels, including many children or adults diagnosed with ADD / ADHD …"3
*Another article outlined reasons why sulfur and sulfate shortages within the body may explain the prevalence of heart disease. Research scientist Stephanie Seneff, Ph.D. at MIT called cholesterol sulfate a "mysterious molecule" that fluctuates in the blood and causes instability that may help cause cardiovascular disease.4
* Research backs up traditional remedies pointing to topical remedies using sulfur and MSM as an effective treatment for acne and other skin conditions, such as acne, rosacea, scabiesseborrheic dermatitis and parasites.5
The Science Behind the Healing in Sulfur-Containing Foods
Several beneficial compounds containing sulfur express themselves with healing in your body. Glucosinolates are one of them, found primarily in crucifer vegetables such as cabbage, broccoli and cabbage, and leafy green veggies like kale, collard greens and arugula.
When you cut or bite into cruciferous vegetables, you'll detect a pungent odor, caused by sulfur-infused glucosinolates being released.
The George Mateljan Foundation a not-for-profit organization that studies scientific information on healthy foods and specific nutrients explained how this phenomenon has dual benefits, taste-wise and in healing:
"The cutting process may actually increase certain health benefits since some of the newly formed (and transformed) sulfur-containing molecules have been shown to have cancer-preventive properties.
This includes the sulfur-containing glucosinolates, which are formed when an enzyme called myrosinase is activated."6
Interestingly, scientists suggest that if you plan to cook your crucifer veggies you chop them, then allow them to rest for a few minutes beforehand so that the maximum benefit can be released. Cooking them too soon after cutting prevents the myrosinase enzymes from forming, so the benefits are lost.
The Significance of MSM and DMSO
MSM (methylsulfonylmethane) is a naturally occurring sulfur compound in your body that's well known for supporting your joints, but it's also useful in other areas of your body. The make-up of MSM is 34 percent sulfur by weight, but it also affects sulfur metabolism.
Perhaps the best way you know if you don't have enough MSM in your system is by symptoms that may include fatigue, prevalence in experiencing high stress, physically and psychologically, depression and even degenerative diseases, such as Parkinson's disease, arteriosclerosis, osteoarthritis and cancer.
MSM metabolizes dimethyl sulfoxide, a controversial anti-inflammatory and analgesic compound known as DMSO, which, unfortunately, is approved for use in veterinary medicine only, not in humans. One article7 explained that DMSO:
" … [H]olds promise in managing a wide range of debilitating health conditions. DMSO is an approved pharmacological agent in more than 125 countries, and its safety and therapeutic effects are backed by nearly 50 years of research and more than 10,000 scientific articles on its biological implications."
One article discusses Dr. Stanley Jacob's research on DMSO and its benefits in many applications, including the treatment of head trauma. According to Jacob, its ability as a free-radical scavenger and diuretic is part of the key to improving the blood supply to the brain, which reduces swelling:
"This improves blood oxygenation to brain tissue. Injured brain cells often aren't dead. When these cells get increased blood supply and more oxygen, and when the free radicals are scavenged, dying cells can recover, and brain swelling is reduced very rapidly."
Sulfur Deficiency in Regard to Obesity
"A diet high in grains like bread and cereal is likely to be deficient in sulfur. Increasingly, whole foods such as corn and soybeans are disassembled into component parts with chemical names, and then reassembled into heavily processed foods. Sulfur is lost along the way, and so is the awareness that this loss matters."8
The problem with this type of diet is that it's heavy on grains, such as bread, hamburger buns, and cereal, where the sulfur content is low.
Mineral Deficiencies Sometimes Cause 'Mystery' Symptoms
Stephanie Seneff has a few theories:
 "My extensive literature search has led me to two mysterious molecules found in the blood stream and in many other parts of the body: vitamin D3 sulfate and cholesterol sulfate. Upon exposure to the sun, the skin synthesizes vitamin D3 sulfate, a form of vitamin D that, unlike unsulfated vitamin D3, is water-soluble.
As a consequence, it can travel freely in the blood stream rather than encapsulated inside LDL (the so-called 'bad' cholesterol) for transport. The form of vitamin D that is present in both human milk and raw cow's milk is vitamin D3 sulfate (pasteurization destroys it in cow's milk)."9
A few other minerals that you may not be getting enough of are magnesium and sulfate . A shortage of these could lead to high blood pressure, heart problems, high blood pressure and symptoms like leg cramps, muscle twitches or spasms.
Eating more vegetables, nuts and seafood is a good way to avoid deficiencies in these minerals, which could help you avoid developing serious diseases and disorders.
How to Increase Your Sulfur Intake Naturally
One of the most basic ways to obtain sulfur is by drinking water. In fact, you get about 10 percent of the sulfur in your body in this way. Hard tap water may contain more sulfur than soft water, and studies indicate that the incidences of heart disease are greater for those who drink soft water.10
If you want to increase your sulfur intake, one of the best things you can do is eat more sulfur-rich foods. Eating foods like garlic, for instance (as opposed to taking a garlic supplement), is an example; a good amount would be three cloves per day — raw and crushed or chopped before eating.
Allium Vegetables Contain Disease-Preventing Sulfur Compounds
Clinical studies have identified organic sulfur-containing compounds (OSCs) from allium vegetables (such as garlic and onions) as potentially beneficial in preventing many diseases, including "infections, cardiovascular and metabolic affections, cancers and related indispositions."11
One study observed that garlic has been used for treating infections for thousands of years in many areas of the world, including Egypt, India, China and Greece. Its antibacterial, antibiotic, antiseptic, antiviral and antifungal benefits are due, at least in part, to the sulfur. As reported in the Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal:
"Garlic has historically been used to treat earaches, leprosy, deafness, severe diarrhea, constipation and parasitic infections, and to lower fever, fight infections and relieve stomach aches.
The most compelling evidence [is] that garlic and related sulfur constituents can suppress cancer risk and alter the biological behaviour of tumors. Experimentally, garlic and its associated sulfur components are reported to suppress tumor incidence in breast, colon, skin, uterine, esophagus and lung cancers."12

Introduction
Because of the much larger implications of sulfur metabolism, and the role that this element plays in the synthesis of a very large number of key metabolic intermediates, such as glutathione, we decided to extend this review to include a broad scope of overlapping metabolic pathways that can be affected by insufficient or marginal intake of sulfur.
The hope is that such a review will encourage further research into this very important and most often neglected area of metabolism. This includes the potential to affect the initiation and progression of a large number of anomalies presenting inflammatory and degenerative changes as well as those associated with normal aging and the wasting aspects of a large number of pathologies.
Sulfur containing metabolites, of which glutathione is a key exponent, merge in their functioning with many other compounds that play a major role in mechanisms which are receiving tremendous interests as parts of conventional and complementary medical care. These include the n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids, minerals such as Selenium, Zinc, Copper and Magnesium, vitamins E and C, antioxidants such as the proanthocyanidins and lipoic acid, many of which are involved in the synthesis of prostaglandins and in the antioxidant cascade. More and more evidence is accumulating and focusing on the cooperative role that glutathione and other sulfur metabolites play in the homeostatic control of these fundamental mechanisms.
Metabolism of sulfur containing amino acids
Methionine and cysteine are both required for protein synthesis [1]. For optimal growth, diets must provide these two amino acids, or methionine alone. The physiological requirements for cysteine can be met by dietary cysteine or by an excess of dietary methionine.
From the standpoint of the diet, methionine alone is capable of providing all the necessary body sulfur, with the exception of the two sulfur-containing vitamins, thiamin and biotin.
In 1989 a subcommittee of the United States Food and Nutrition Board, National Research Council, issued its last update on recommended dietary allowances (RDA) for protein and amino acids. The RDA for methionine (combined with cysteine) for adults has been set at 14 mg/Kg of body weight per day.
Tuttle et al [6] feeding purified amino acid diets containing variable amounts of methionine to older individuals at the VA Hospital in Los Angeles/UCLA established values significantly higher than those previously established by Rose in young college students.
They all needed more than 2.1 g/day, with some subjects requiring up to 3.0 g/day to remain in positive nitrogen balance. Fuller and Garlick [8] who reviewed the subject in detail concluded that, both for men and women amino acid requirements appear underestimated.
In light of these concerns, particularly as it relates to the unique role of the SAA in providing sulfates for GAG (glycosaminoglycans) synthesis, it seems essential to determine if the needs for sulfur are being met, in particular as it relates to GAG and GSH (glutathione) in cartilage.
One could predict that GAG synthesis may not fare well during marginal intakes, and that a preference will be given to the synthesis of proteins and essential metabolic intermediates like CoA, SAM (S-Adenosyl-L-Methionine), GSH, etc. in the brain and other fundamental organs. Unfortunately no studies have been performed to address this very important question.
Studies in humans are not easy to perform, are costly and subject to many variables. It should be noted that poultry diets are always supplemented with methionine/cysteine to enhance growth [9,10].
Glutathione (GSH) a key metabolite and storage form for sulfur
Sulfur amino acids contribute substantially to the maintenance and integrity of the cellular systems by influencing cellular redox state and the capacity to detoxify toxic compounds, free radicals and reactive oxygen species [16].
Cysteine and methionine are not stored in the body. Any dietary excess is readily oxidized to sulfate, excreted in the urine (or reabsorbed depending on dietary levels) or stored in the form of glutathione (GSH).
Even in extreme situations the organism tries to spare the loss of sulfur by continuing to store any available sulfur as GSH in the liver [17].
The availability of cysteine appears to be the rate limiting factor for synthesis of GSH. GSH values are subnormal in a large number of wasting diseases and following certain medications leading frequently to poor survival [18,19].
By supplying SAA many of these changes can be reversed. In the brain, which is usually the most spared organ during nutrient deficiencies, GSH concentration declines in order to maintain adequate levels of cysteine. This loss of GSH impairs antioxidant defenses.
The active form of glutathione is the reduced form, GSH, while the inactive form GSSG, has to be converted to GSH. The usual ratio of GSH:GSSG in tissues is around 100:1. Cartilage, less essential for survival, may not fare well under conditions of sulfur deprivation, explaining why dietary supplements containing sulfur (chondroitin sulfate, glucosamine sulfate, MSM (Methylsulfonylmethane), etc.) may be of benefit in the treatment of joint diseases [20].
Even sulfurated water hydrotherapy, many times accompanied by the ingestion of such waters, and considered an empirical treatment for a variety of diseases, has been shown to involve the GSH related antioxidant cascade [21,22].
The relationship of diet, age and other physiological parameters to blood and tissue concentrations of GSH are well documented [23-26]. Since all the dietary supplements investigated containing sulfate, including MSM [27] are readily they should be able to spare losses of GSH associated with dietary deficiencies, increased utilization due to disease or altered immune function.
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are generated during normal cellular activity and may exist in excess in some pathophysiological conditions, such as inflammation or preperfusion injury (the tissue damage caused when blood supply returns to tissue after a period of ischemia or lack of oxygen)
These molecules oxidize a variety of cellular constituents, but sulfur-containing amino acid residues are especially susceptible [28].
Glutathione: its protective role against oxidative and free radical damage and its potential to enhance the immune function
Increasing methionine intake, the transsulfuration pathway (interconversion of cysteine and homocysteine, through the intermediate cystathionine), which provides a substrate for GSH synthesis, is increased.
Thus, under conditions of low SAA intake, protein synthesis will be maintained, and synthesis of sulfate and GSH will be curtailed.
Changes in the availability of GSH are likely to influence in a negative fashion the function of the immune system and of the antioxidant defense mechanisms..
Oxidant damage to cells will give rise to a cascade of pro-inflammatory effects by the production of lipid peroxides. GSH and the associated antioxidant activity exerts an immune enhancing and anti-inflammatory effect as described earlier.
Regulation of prostaglandin biosynthesis by glutathione
Prostaglandins (PGs) are very well known to play an important role in a variety of normal body functions as well in key metabolic steps associated with many of the events associated with inflammation.
Studies by Margalit et al [36] has provided clear evidence in mice that elevated levels of GSH inhibit PG production, and most likely exhibit its anti-inflammatory. This attenuation of PG synthesis in vivo sheds light on another potential benefit associated with increased SAA intake and adequate levels of tissue GSH.
From the practical point of view, it raises the possibility that a satisfactory intake of SAA combined with PUFA may prove of significant benefit to individuals suffering from a variety of joint anomalies associated with inflammation.

Relationship between dietary intake of protein with or without Methionine or S-containing compounds and urinary excretion of free sulfate
Our findings clearly demonstrate that S retention occurs during the consumption of low levels of protein..At higher levels of dietary protein intake, when the requirements of sulfur are presumably met, essentially all the methionine added to the diet is excreted in the urine.
The significant retention of methionine at low levels of protein intake gave the first clues that our dietary supply of sulfur could be borderline or even unsatisfactory for many individuals.
SAA are used to replenish the stores of GSH, which can be considered a storage form for sulfur, and only when this goal is met is the excess oxidized to sulfate.
Protein and amino acid requirements of the elderly with special focus on sulfur containing amino acids
Sarcopenia (loss of muscle mass) associated with older age seems to be associated in part to a decline in protein and energy intake, caused by changes in taste sensation, alterations in dentition, social isolation, depression and economic factors. I
There is a growing body of data pointing out the potential importance of oxidative stress and resulting changes in redox state in numerous diseases, including sepsis, chronic inflammation, cancer AIDS/HIV, and of course aging.
These observations warrant continued attention for the potential supplementation role of SAA supplementation, in the form of additional protein or as has been found useful, N-acetylcysteine in some particular circumstances.
The importance of dietary protein cannot be underestimated in this population since inadequate protein intake contributes, among other things, to a decrease in lung reserve capacity, increased skin fragility, osteoporosis, decreased immune function and muscle mass (sarcopenia), poor healing and longer recuperation from illness [2,47].
Discussion
Animal and human studies have demonstrated that adequate protein nutrition is crucial for the maintenance of GSH homeostasis [48]. Elevated levels of GSH inhibit prostaglandin production, of potential significance in the progression of inflammatory or degenerative states [36].
Some recent studies have found that on occasions the pain reduction in OA (Osteo-arthritis) associated with the administration of chondroitin sulfate, a source of sulfur, was found to be equivalent to that provided by NSAID.
As discussed neither cysteine nor methionine are stored in the body. Any dietary excess is readily oxidized to sulfate, excreted in the urine (or reabsorbed depending on dietary levels) or stored in the form of glutathione (GSH).
GSH values are subnormal in a large number of wasting diseases and following certain medications, and by supplying SAA many of these changes can be reversed [49].
A deficiency of sulfur amino acids has been shown to compromise glutathione synthesis to a greater extent than protein synthesis in the presence and absence of inflammatory stimulus [34]. During an immune/inflammatory response a combination of enhanced utilization of cysteine for GSH synthesis and cell replication may be what leads to a depletion of cellular SAM.
Genetic defects in sulfate transport have been associated with congenital osteochondrodystrophies that may be lethal and provide insights into sulfate transport and hormonal and nutritional regulation [50]. Whereas low levels of dietary protein led to hip joint displasia in mice and rats normal levels inhibited the development of OA.
Along these lines the possible beneficial effects of inorganic sulfates in drinking water should be evaluated. Certain sulfur containing thermal water baths have been found to be of benefit, probably via transdermal penetration or because of actual drinking of such waters at health spas [21,52-55].
On the other hand it is important to recollect that sulfation is a major pathway for detoxification of pharmacological agents by the liver. Drugs such as acetaminophen, so frequently used in the treatment of pain associated with joint diseases, require large amounts of sulfate for their excretion..
It is possible that the individuals that benefit mostly from these supplements are those that consume inadequate amounts of protein or other sources of dietary sulfate. A recent publication by Drogue [59,60], who has extensively investigated the relationship of oxidative stress and aging, has concluded that this event may be in great part be associated with a deficit of cysteine and to a suboptimal intake of SAA.
Finally it may be relevant to conclude this review with a statement taken from Sir Stanley Davidson and Passmore's classic textbook of Human Nutrition and Dietetics [61] who suggested that" it is not unlikely that some of the effects of protein deficiency are in fact due to failure of sulfur containing intermediates or even to sulfur containing polysaccharides. It is even possible that the ancient nostrum of 'brimstone and treacle' (sulfur and molasses) had nutritional value unsuspected by modern knowledge".
References
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Dr. Gillaspy has taught health science at University of Phoenix and Ashford University and has a degree from Palmer College of Chiropractic.
Sulfur is a major mineral of the body that is part of certain amino acids and helps with many bodily processes. Learn what happens if you do not get enough of the mineral through your diet and what happens, if anything, when too much is ingested in this lesson.
Deficiency
Sulfur is part of methionine and cysteine, which are amino acids needed in the making of proteins. So, if there is too little sulfur, or a sulfur deficiency, it could lead to reduced protein synthesis.
The sulfur-containing amino acid cysteine is also needed for making glutathione, which is somewhat of a superhero in your body because it works as a potent antioxidant that protects your cells from damage. So we see that a sulfur deficiency can cause a cascade of other problems. For instance, without sufficient sulfur to make cysteine, there could be reduced glutathione synthesis, which may contribute to cell damage.
Sulfur is also needed to create connective tissues that support your joints, such as cartilage, tendons and ligaments. So, if we think about this connection, we could see that a deficiency of sulfur could contribute to joint pain or disease. In fact, we see sulfur contained in medications designed for joint health. If you're leafing through a magazine, you might see these medications advertised as chondroitin sulfate and glucosamine sulfate. See the word sulfur hidden in their names?



Sulfur Metabolism and Sulfur-Containing Amino Acids: I- Molecular Effectors
Abstract
The biology of the macro-element sulfur (S) is attracting an ever growing attention concerning cell physiology and human health.
Indeed, unbalanced levels of S compounds in the body are actually under investigation as vulnerability factors and/or indicators of impaired cell oxidation state in a variety of human diseases.
The chief role of S metabolism in cells and its tight coupling to oxidative stress suggest the involvement of S compounds in basic functions as the homeostasis of chemical cell composition as well as in defense and detoxifying mechanisms. Sulfur inorganic/organic compounds work as main metabolic sensors in the modulation of environment-cell interplays. The development of S biology studies can pave the way toward new research fields in human disease and, potentially, in pharmacology